Sunday, May 24, 2020

Media Bias Of The United States - 1389 Words

I agree with you in the fact that media in the United States is indeed biased. The mainstream media particularly all seem to have a majority of the same viewpoints with little variation on their beliefs, but I must disagree when you say all journalists and writers are biased because, â€Å"they push their agenda in news and entertainment.† Media bias comes from a multitude of factors, who enters careers in writing and journalism, where journalists get information from, and how audiences receive news and media. When looking at how written work is biased, one must look at who is doing the writing. On the whole, journalist are white, upper class individuals (Williams). This is because of how graduates get journalism jobs. Newsrooms want to hire†¦show more content†¦How stories are written and where stories come from also a major force of media bias, this bias comes from how and where journalists get sources. Good, knowledgeable, well-connected sources are hard to come b y, so when journalists get access to such sources, they often return to them again and again for comments on stories. This is problematic as, â€Å"this journalistic inclination toward certain routine sources might result in a bias in terms of the framing of the event and an imbalanced coverage† (Reich; van der Meer et al.). When journalists return consistently to the same individuals for comments on stories, the viewpoints of those sources get saturated in the media. These source’s opinions, thoughts, and perspective on the events in the news get more representation through media, causing a bias via overrepresentation of a single viewpoint. Another way sources bias media, is who journalists seek as sources. Journalists seek out influential, well connected, and powerful individuals to be sources. This is in no way a bad practice, as journalists want people who are involved in newsworthy events to be informing what the public knows, it can also lead to bias. The media c ontrols what events are covered, in which way, and when. The people of the United States rely on the media to inform them about the happenings of the day. The voice of the media is powerful in its gatekeeping role. If information or commentary about happenings in the worldShow MoreRelatedEssay on Liberal Media Bias in the United States 1356 Words   |  6 Pagesstories that have been published, they count on the media to portray both sides. However, you cannot believe everything that the media reports. If you were to pay attention to the reports given by journalists, you will find that they report on the stories that they feel they want to get out. And when it comes to politics, they have a way of leaning more towards a democratic view. The American media has a way of portraying the news in a bias way, which has been studied, researched, and reportedRead MoreRacial Bias in the United States due to Mass Media Essay1865 Words   |  8 PagesThe United States of America has been c alled a â€Å"mixing pot† since the birth of the nation. Everyone, especially politicians and educators, will proudly declare that the U.S. is a land of unmatched diversity. The U.S. seems to always be portrayed as a highly cultural territory, harboring a vast population of many races. Admittedly, the United States has come a long in terms of eliminating racial barriers and pursuing equality. All around the world, America is seen as a country of colors, yet massRead MoreMedia Bias And The Civil Rights Era1286 Words   |  6 PagesMedia bias is a topic that has been in great focus of many political leaders over the past few presidential elections. However, what many people fail to see is that media bias has been around since the beginning of major news companies. Most Americans do not know what media bias is or how to identify it. That stated many people have noticed that most news stations are biased towards one religion, political party or even gender. This has been like th is for decades however has become much more prominentRead MoreMedia Bias on Women’s Issues700 Words   |  3 PagesMedia Bias on Women’s Issues Detecting bias in news media is a challenge that every person who watches, reads, or listens to the news should accept. Subtle changes in the details of a story can change the entire focus of an event and affect all members of the audience. Applying the gender-based critique analysis process to the media coverage of the 2004 March for Women’s Lives in Washington, D.C. provides an excellent exercise in identifying news bias. The article, â€Å"Muting the Women’s March: MediaRead MoreNews Media And Voting Preferences Essay1391 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction The news media plays an important role in society. It sets the stage for political news, manages sources, and controls the information. It functions as a window to the outside world, and possesses the ability to shape public knowledge, attitudes, and voting behavior. The relationship between news media and voting preferences has become a hot topic in recent years worldwide. This paper will focus on the social and social-psychological aspects of media influence on the voting preferencesRead MoreThe United States Of America1208 Words   |  5 PagesDoes the United States of America actually get the media it deserves? This is a crucial question for not only U.S. citizens to be asking themselves, but the media personnel as well. If a country’s media is not efficiently and effectively providing its citizens with news stories, there is a huge problem at hand. While the media thrives off of breaking news stories, it’s generally the minute details that grab the attention of v iewers. In essence, the minute details are what makes a breaking news storyRead MoreStereotypes Of Minority Groups During Media1733 Words   |  7 PagesAlejandra Guerrero Mrs. Wong AP English Language and Composition Period 4 2 June 2015 Stereotypes of Minority Groups in Media Harmeen Jones, a former Fox Technician, was fired after filing a complaint to Human Resources of the unfair treatment he was receiving by his colleagues at Fox for being African-American. Jones claims ‘he was subjected to a steady stream of racist, sexist, and extremely offensive comments,’ against blacks, Muslims, Jews, women and Hispanics† (Shifrel). Unfortunately, notRead MoreHow Does Media Bias Affect Campaigns? Essay1654 Words   |  7 PagesHow Does Media Bias Affect Campaigns? Political scientist, journalists, and politicians alike often discuss the role of the news media’s place in affecting campaigns, and voter perceptions. Claims of media bias in political news coverage have risen over the past two decades. Scholarly research has explored concerns that broadcast and print media shape voting decisions in democratic processes. The aim of my literature review is to investigate and study the hypothesis that the more a specific newsRead MoreMedia Bias And The Media1365 Words   |  6 PagesMedia Bias In today’s society, remaining connected and knowledgeable of current events and the newest trends is vital to staying ahead in business, education, and social standing. This information is supplied to everyone through the internet, newspapers, television, and radio. One can tune into stations such as CNN, NBC, Fox News, Al-Jazeera, and many others (â€Å"SQs of Media Outlets†). In order to meet the needs of viewers, readers, and listeners, the ideal media system would contain accurate, quickRead MoreThe Bias Of Mass Media1034 Words   |  5 Pages Argument toward certain topics began because the bias found in the mass media. According to University Wire, â€Å"[the media is the main reason why we’re]politically divided because the fundamental flaw in our mass media system is that we have two sides.† What two sides are we talking about? We’re talking about the democrats and republicans or in other words, liberal and conservative sides. Liberals are those who believe in changes and conservative are those who believe in traditional values. What

Monday, May 18, 2020

Theories Within the Classroom Environment Essay - 1477 Words

The foundation of a classroom setting is based on theories that enhance student learning, have a positive impact on the classroom environment and may â€Å"provide valuable guidance for teachers† (Cooper, 2006, cited in Eggen and Kauchak, 2010). Even though teaching is about what a student is taught, there are certain practises that are used to get the most out of students without the student realising. Experts in the field have developed different theories that aim to provide an answer as to how and why children learn. These theories aim to help teachers understand why children think the way they do and why different children respond better to different teaching techniques. There are many differing theories but this paper will focus on three –†¦show more content†¦The theory behind extrinsic motivation is that it will eventually lead to intrinsic motivation and that students will be able to develop self-motivation (Marsh, 2008). Not all students will always be intrinsically motivated, there will be students who would normally be self-motivated, but may at times need extrinsic motivation to keep on task. If a person knows they are doing a good job then they are likely to push on to succeed with positive reinforcement (Eggen and Kauchak 2010). Motivation needs to be used properly within the classroom so there is no discrimination. The theory behind motivation is what is driving it and is it going to be used effectively. Information-based theory of motivation is what is behind the student’s motivation. What will the student get out of it for themselves? An intrinsic motivation will be operational in their work and the student will want to produce work of a high standard, whether or not they will succeed with good grade. Self-motivated students will however usually produce work of a high standard (Brewer et al, 1988). It can be argued, that if a student is reaching a set learning target that is either intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, then there is not harm in which motivation is being used (Brewer et al, 1988). This being said, the negative connotations of continuous extrinsic motivation can be that as the student gets older and reaches high schoolShow MoreRelatedLearning Is Viewed As One Of The Most Important Interactive Activities1643 Words   |  7 Pages Learning Theory Paper Kimberlyn Boddie EDUC 2130: Teaching Learning Professor: George Darden November 1, 2015 Learning is viewed as one of the most important interactive activities in which children engage. Although most learning occurs outside of the school setting, it is the heart of the educational process. Psychologists and philosophers searched to understand the true nature of learning, why and how learning occurs at different stages in life and how it can haveRead MoreLearning Prompted By Language Creates An Optimal Space For Supporting Cognitive Development952 Words   |  4 PagesWithin the ZPD, Vygotsky believes that learning prompted by language creates an optimal space for supporting cognitive development. As a result, learning takes on a social component, and the child can and will benefit from a group environment. Looking at it a step further, the social aspect explains why this learning theory is considered culturally comprehensive. When children take part in a learning activity, they benefit from the instruction and aid of others–be it teachers or peers. In an idealR ead MoreVygotsky s Theory Of Internalisation1709 Words   |  7 Pages Vygotsky also introduced his theory of internalisation, one of the main concepts that differentiated from that of Jean Piaget (Duchesne, S., McMaugh, A. 2016. P.103). The theory of internalisation put forward by Vygotsky is an idea that suggests an individual is able to observe and internalise the ideas and processes of their surroundings as they partake in social interaction defined as, â€Å"new ways of thinking† (Duchesne, S., McMaugh, A.,2016p.103). During social interaction the individualsRead MoreCritical Thinking And Problem Solving Skills1648 Words   |  7 Pagesof learning theories, pedagogies, transformative learning spaces, behavioural management and most importantly; the evolution and role of technology. Learners within the 21st Century are experiencing an education where they are taught to collaboratively communicate and construct new understandings, while acquiring higher order thinking skills to apply beyond the classroom environment. This essay will examin e pedagogies and theories regarding the impact upon the quality of education within the 21st CenturyRead MoreClassroom Management : A Comparison Of Theorists1353 Words   |  6 Pages Classroom Management: A Comparison of Theorists Sandy Harter Liberty University EDUC 624 04/03/2016 Explanation of Theorists Classroom management is a popular topic in education. Teachers are always looking for ways to improve their classroom environment, or new ways to deal with problem behaviors. For every person who has ever worked with children, there is an idea, a theory, as to how to best meet children’s needs. Early theorists provide the basis for many current behaviorRead MoreMaslow s Hierarchy Of Needs Theory Essay1464 Words   |  6 PagesAbraham Maslow Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory has made a major impact in education and within classroom management within our schools. Maslow takes on a holistic approach to education and learning. He looks at the entire physical, emotional, social, and intellectual qualities of an individual and how they impact on learning. According to Maslow s hierarchy theory, the work of the classroom teacher is obvious. Before a student s cognitive needs can be met they must first fulfill their basicRead MoreAn Effective Classroom Management Plan Essay1205 Words   |  5 Pageseffective classroom management plan creates an inviting environment in which all students have the opportunity to engage in a learning experience which includes both socially acceptable behavior and content core material. The strategies within the proposal allows the teacher to reach the personal, psychological, and learning needs of the student while encouraging positive, productive behavior in order to reach students ’ personal goals (Jones Jones, 2013, p. 1). One’s philosophy of classroom managementRead MoreClassroom Reflection1610 Words   |  7 Pagesthe first observation of the classroom culture and setting, having the opportunity to volunteer for close to a year has a definite benefit. In the case of McCammon Elementary, the classroom dynamics are experiencing a time of change. As a child who myself attended McCammon Elementary, the classroom environments have generally remained the same up until this year. McCammon Elementary can be seen as a more traditional school when regarding the environments within classrooms. The walls were generally tailoredRead MoreAbility Grouping in Education Essay1328 Words   |  6 PagesAbility grouping is a common practice in today’s classrooms, which involves using intelligence tests to place individuals in certain academic groups with others whom have the same abilities. Two types of ability grouping include between-class and withi n-class grouping, which provide both benefits and hindrances in a classroom setting. When a school or teacher groups students â€Å"based on their ability or achievement,† the school is practicing between-class ability grouping (Santrock 125). In manyRead MoreStudent s Social Background And Their Connections Within Society1531 Words   |  7 Pagesbackground and their connections within society. Julie Matthews regards education being concerned with the transmission of culture, values, beliefs, knowledge and skills (2013,p166). Social insights into learner’s backgrounds can expose how and why student’s act and think in a particular way. Developmentally the sociology of education has provided numerous theories, the functionalist perspective, the conflict perspective, Forms of Capital and the Virtual Backpack Theory, which contributes to and underpin

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Suchomimus Dinosaur Facts and Figures

Name: Suchomimus (Greek for crocodile mimic); pronounced SOO-ko-MIME-us Habitat: Lakes and rivers of Africa Historical Period: Middle Cretaceous (120-10 million years ago) Size and Weight: Up to 40 feet long and six tons Diet: Fish and meat Distinguishing Characteristics: Long, crocodilian snout with backward-pointing teeth; long arms; ridge on back About Suchomimus A relatively recent addition to the dinosaur bestiary, the first (and to date only) fossil of Suchomimus was discovered in Africa in 1997, by a team headed by the noteworthy American paleontologist Paul Sereno. Its name, crocodile mimic, refers to this dinosaurs long, toothy, distinctly crocodilian snout, which it probably used to snap fish out of the rivers and streams of the then-lush northern Sahara region of Africa (the Sahara didnt become dry and dusty until a sudden shift in climate 5,000 years ago). The relatively long arms of Suchomimus, which it likely dipped into the water to spear passing fish, are another clue that this dinosaur subsisted on a mostly marine diet, perhaps supplemented by scavenging abandoned carcasses. Classified as a spinosaur, Suchomimus was similar to a few other large theropods of the middle Cretaceous period, including (you guessed it) the gigantic Spinosaurus, probably the largest carnivorous dinosaur that ever lived, as well as slightly smaller meat-eaters like Carcharodontosaurus, the amusingly named Irritator, and its closest relative, the western European Baryonyx. (The distribution of these large theropods across what is now modern-day Africa, South America, and Eurasia lends additional evidence to the theory of continental drift; tens of millions of years ago, before they broke apart, these continents were joined together in the giant landmass of Pangaea.) Tantalizingly, recent evidence that has adduced Spinosaurus as a swimming dinosaur may apply to these other spinosaurs as well, in which case Suchomimus may have competed for prey with marine reptiles rather than its fellow theropods. Because only a single, possibly juvenile fossil of Suchomimus has been identified, its not clear what size this dinosaur actually attained as a full-grown adult. Some paleontologists believe that adult Suchomimus may have reached lengths of over 40 feet and weights of over six tons, putting them just slightly below the class of Tyrannosaurus Rex (which lived tens of millions of years later, in North America) and the even bigger Spinosaurus. Its ironic, in retrospect, that such a huge meat-eater subsisted on relatively small fish and marine reptiles, rather than the plus-sized hadrosaurs and sauropods that surely must have inhabited its northern African territory (though, of course, this dinosaur wouldnt have turned up its elongated nose at any duckbill that happened to stumble into the water!)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Building And Maintain A Cyber Operations Force - 1394 Words

Strategic Goals Build and maintain a cyber operations force: The Department of Defense requires personnel to be trained to the highest standards and have the highest quality technology available to them in order to operate effectively. To this end the Department of Defense initiated the Cyber Mission Force in 2013 (â€Å"Department of Defense Cyber Strategy,† 2015). The Cyber Mission Force is 133 cyber teams: 68 Cyber Protection teams focused on defending the network, 13 National Mission teams to defend critical national infrastructure, 27 Combat Mission teams assisting combat commanders in planning and strategy, 25 Support Teams to support the National Mission and Combat Mission teams. Of the 40 completed teams, 80 percent are members of the military, the remaining 20 being civilian, and the teams average age is 24 (Pomerleau, 2016). With the current push to expand cyber security in the private sector, there is major concern with the Cyber Mission Force being able to complete and retain its staffing with all the range of skills required while the private sector offers more competitive wages (Schmidt, 2015). Prepare and Defend DoD info network, data, mitigate damage As it is not possible to defend against everything everywhere, the Department of Defense must identify, prioritize, and defend its most important networks, including in a degraded or disrupted environment in the event of a successful attack (â€Å"Department of Defense Cyber Strategy,† 2015). One of the steps expected isShow MoreRelatedStrategic Direction On The United States1647 Words   |  7 Pagesrebalance the Joint Force in 2025 unless sequestration is reversed. The current U.S. strategic direction has prompted a shift of military resources to the Asia-Pacific. Globalization, cyber-attacks and advances in technology will further challenge the Joint Forces in the next ten years. It is imperative that the U.S. Joint Forces be adequately funded in order to identify and develop critical technology, establish policies and maintain adequate force structure to rebalance the Joint Force in 2025. DiminishingRead MoreStrategic Strategy And Policy Objectives1543 Words   |  7 Pagesrelationship with China by promoting openness, communicating our values, encouraging transparency, and reducing the potential for miscalculation and misunderstanding of intentions while concurrently dissuading and deterring China from using force or the threat of force against others. PACOM must focus on diplomacy, information, military, and economic means as a way to achieve these ends. The first tool of national power PACOM may use to achieve these ends is diplomacy. Diplomacy is not wholly ownedRead MoreThe National Security Strategy Essay921 Words   |  4 Pagesnational security by increasing advisory roles, rotational presence, and exercises. Complimenting both, the Quadrennial Defense Review, published in 2010, set two overarching objectives: rebalance of US forces to meet current and future wars; and refine processes in order to support the US armed forces, buy only weapons that are necessary, and ensure responsible use of money. Finally, the National Military Strategy, published in 2011, explicitly states, â€Å"Let us not forget, the Nation remains at warRead MoreCase Analysis : Commander Sabater1467 Words   |  6 Pagesprevalent within the Forward Deployed Naval Forces (FDNF) from 21 August 2013 to 30 September 2016. He is in-charge of 50 personnel, operating and maintains all information-related activities in Southern Mainland Japan. As Commander, Task Unit 1010.7.6, his team consistently achieved excellence. His base communications manager was a recipient of the 2015 Copernicus award and his Senior Sailor of the Year was a finalist in the Fiscal Year 2015 Fleet Cyber Command Senior Sailor of the Year competitionRead MoreRelationship Between The United States And The Peoples Republic Of China1671 Words   |  7 Pagesconstructively engage China, while dissuading and deterring China from using force or the threat of force against others. According to President Obama in the 2015 National Security Strategy, the scope of our cooperation with China is unprecedented, even as we remain alert to China’s military modernization. The evolving security environment in the PACOM area of responsibility is initiating the shift of our focus and forces to the Indo-Asia-Pacific region. Over the next 5 years, nearly half of allRead MoreNational Strategic Guidance And The Global Security Environment1605 Words   |  7 Pagesjust doesn’t happen necessitating the United States military to maintain the decisive edge. Dempsey’s statement is the catalyst for the premise of Joint Force 2025 in which the United States military embarks upon a transition and rebalance to address a wide continuum of emerging threats to our nation’s national interests in the foreseeable future. Dempsey correctly states that adaptation and innovation are essential to the Joint Force 2025 as ‘we have to out-learn and out-think o ur adversaries.’ Read MoreWhy Is It Important That Organizations Of All Sizes Invest1700 Words   |  7 Pagesfrom the disclosure of private information, loss of credibility and reputation. According to the 2013 Internet Crime Report, over 250,000 complaints were received via the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) website. The IC3 is a multi-agency task force made up by the FBI, the National White Collar Crime Center (NW3C), and the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA). (IC3) To start, we first need to define what cybersecurity is, then identify the types of threats and vulnerabilities. What countermeasuresRead MoreThe Threat Of The Cyber Threat1958 Words   |  8 Pagespercentage of the civilized world, few Americans realize how vital cyberspace is to our national infrastructure. Today, we are faced with even more threats although it has been a recognized problem since 2009, when President Barrack Obama said â€Å"The cyber threat is one of the most serious economic and national security challenges we face as a nation. It’s also clear that we’re not as prepared as we should be, as a government or as a country (Obama, 2009).† Every industry that operates in the UnitedRead MoreBusiness Continuity And Disaster Recovery Essay1382 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery (BCDR or BC/DR) are firmly related practices that portray an association’s arrangement for unanticipated dangers to proceeded with operations. The pattern of consolidating business coherence and calamity recuperation into a solitary term has come about because of a developing acknowledgement that both business officials and innovation administrators should work together nearly as opposed to creating plans in segregation. Business Continuity andRead MoreStrategic Direction And Global Security Environment1648 Words   |  7 PagesJoint Force 2025 must be capable of addressing emerging threats by conducting globally integrated operations across all domains in support of the elements of national power. Therefore, the Department of Defense (DOD) needs to rebalance and transition several general capabilities in order for Joint Force 2025 to address emerging threats to U.S. national interests. The services must invest in systems that mainta in strategic deterrence, infrastructure that supports power projection and operational

Analysis Of John Montresor s The Cask Of Amontillado

Montresor is the narrator of â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† who is very educated and a man of stature. The entirety of the story Montresor conveyed his emotions through articulate words which exaggerated his desire to be respected. Montresor expressed how Fortunato injured him thousands of times until eventually Montresor had enough and vowed revenge. From this part of the story Montresor is angry and feeling belittled by Fortunato. Analyzing the feeling that Montresor was injured by Fortunato was really jealousy toward him. Fortunato was rich and powerful and Montresor was a joker. Fortunato must have insulted him one day and Montresor took it upon himself to never be disrespected again. Montresor is the wrong person to say anything offensive†¦show more content†¦Once Montresor states that he will go ask a man Luchresi if he can tell him if his wine is real or not Fortunato is taken aback that Montresor would not just ask him. Montresor knows Fortunato would jump at the opportunity to go to his vaults just to try his wine to prove he knows the difference between Amontillado and Sherry. The entire conversation Montresor continues to lie that he in fact just bought Amontillado and he would rather have Luchresi distinguish it for him because he does not want to interrupt any plans Fortunato had. Montresor declining Fortunato’s request amplifies Fortunato’s desire to go down into the vaults because of his pride being his weakness. Montresor knows that Fortunato is a prideful and he will exploit that weakness to lure him into the catacombs. Now Montresor is feeling as though he has the upper hand now because Fortunato is falling directly into his trap. Montresor finally gives in and allows Fortunato to come down with him to the catacombs, where his vengeance can finally take place. An already intoxicated Fortunato is offered more and more alcohol from Montresor as they get deeper into the catacombs. Montresor wants Fortunato not to be aware in the process of luring him to his death. Montresor tells his family motto to Fortunato which is â€Å"Nemo me impune lacessit. Which means â€Å"no one attacks me with impunity.† Montresor’s family motto means no person can attack or â€Å"insult† as Montresor took it, without punishment.Show MoreRelatedThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allan Poe1575 Words   |  7 PagesIs there anything that someone could do to you that would cause you to commit murder? Could you get away with it? Montresor is the murderous narrator who has committed the perfect murder in just such a tale, â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado.† Montresor plots and kills an unwary friend/foe during carnival time for motives that are unclear. The author of this tale, Edgar Allan Poe, influenced by his somewhat tragic life and one of t he most influential Gothic writers, uses symbolism and irony to show the multitudeRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Montresor887 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿Character Analysis of Montresor If written with skill, â€Å"Villains† can be some of the most interesting characters in literature. The character of Montresor from Edgar Allen Poe’s â€Å"A Cask of Amontillado†. Poe, being the horror writer that he was, portrays this dark character in exactly that way. The story begins with Montresor explaining to the reader as a narrator that a man named Fortunato has insulted and hurt him for a great deal of time. Montresor never explains what exactly Fortunato did toRead MoreInfluence Of A Life By Richard Connell And Edgar Allan Poe1600 Words   |  7 Pagesviolence as a theme. He relates the violence from the war to redirect into his stories. Although, these different themes he writes will allow him to create an urge of passion, and confidence with the characters, and the piece. â€Å"The Most Dangerous Game† Analysis Richard Connell has written many stories with many of his techniques, but of the most memorable story is â€Å"The Most Dangerous Game†. This story shows the main character Sanger Rainsford, in certain positions on the island and in the game that add

King of the Fauves free essay sample

While recovering from appendicitis that year, Matisse received a box of paints from his mother and and then decided to go to Paris, France, to become a painter: He worked under Adolphe William Bouguereau (1825–1905) at the Academie Julian in Paris, but he left in 1892 to enter the studio of Gustave Moreau (1826–1898) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where he studied until 1897. In the studio, Henri met many painters who would soon attain prominence with him in the fauvist movement. Moreau was a liberal teacher who did not interfere with the individuality of his pupils (Biography of Henri Matisse). He encouraged his students to look at nature and to paint outdoors, as well as to frequently visit the museums. Matisse copied paintings in the Louvre and painted outdoors in Paris. Henri did not like the way they taught art in the school. He had a style of his own and liked to paint with bright and dark colors. We will write a custom essay sample on King of the Fauves or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page So he went to places that were bright and sunny. On one of his trips, he met the Impressionist artist named John Russell. He liked the way Russell used bright colors. He also liked other Impressionist painters like Claude Monet and Camellia Pissarro. Soon he began to add more colors in his own paintings.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Theory of Wage Determination-Free-Samples Myassignmenthelp

Question: You are hired by the Fair Work Commission Australia as a consultant to examine Issues relating to pay and Performance. Your task is to provide a report detailing findings from the economic literature on the effectiveness of pay for performance, and how performance should be evaluated based on Incentive pay. Answer: Introduction Employment is one of the most crucial issues of concern in every economy in the world. Employment structures prevailing in the economy contributes significantly in determining the standard of living, over all well being of the resident of the country and the overall economic growth of the same. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to study about the key factors, which influence the employment sector of any economy, both, private as well as public (Meer West, 2015). One of such primary factors is the wage structure which prevails in the firms of an economy at a particular period of time as a significant share of the behavior of the workers and their willingness to work depend on the wage which they are getting which in turn also determine their overall economic well being and lifestyle. The wage structure prevailing in a firm also determines the productivity, prospects and the long run profitability of the firm as much of the prospects of a firm is related to the employees working in the firm and how loyal and willing to work they are. In this report, the aspect of wage structure will be taken into account, emphasizing on the issues related to pay for performance model (Fang Gerhart, 2012). The report aims to study the literatures present regarding this issue and its effectiveness, keeping into account the economic concept of Efficiency Wages and its implications on the performance of the workers. It also tries to analyze the basis of evaluation of the performance of the workers based on the incentives in payment, which they get in their jobs. There have been extensive assertions regarding the benefit of an equitable wage structure in the economy as the proponents of this theory suggests that equity in wage distribution ensures greater welfare of the people in the workforce in general. However, there are opinions against this theory as many of the contemporary economists and business planners propose a model of pay for performance. According to this model, a part of the incentives or wage structure of the employees should be determined by the level of productivity and performance of the employees. This, as asserted by them, gives the able employees to work more and increases their willingness to be productive and competitive in a fair way, which in turn may lead to an increased efficiency in the productive activities of the firms. This scope, however, is absent in the equitable wage theory (Dunlop Segrave, 2016). This theory of pay for performance is related to the economic concept of efficiency wage, which suggests that it may be beneficial for the firms to pay a higher wage to their workers. According to this theory, that can increase their loyalty, devotion and willingness to produce and therefore can increase the efficiency of the workers and the firms as a whole in the long run. However, there are debates regarding whether efficiency wage theory or the notion of pay for performance are actually profitable for the firms and if so till what extent the wages should be increased such that it increases the productivity of the workers without having any negative implications on the firms profit and prospects. The economic concept of the backward bending labor supply curve is similar to this notion (Thuy Flaaten, 2013). This theory suggests that there is a tradeoff between the labor hours and the time for leisure for the workers and if wages are increased above a certain level the willingness of the workers to work more actually reduces as the workers tend to substitute labor hours with more leisure. There are extensive literary works related to the different theories, propositions and counter propositions prevailing regarding the wage structure and the viability of the efficiency wage theories and pay for performance concept, which are discussed in the following section. Findings from the literatures Wage structure and differences in the same across geographical locations and with time have been issues of key concern as they have direct implications on the economic well being of people and a region as a whole. Over the years, with changes in the dynamics of the employment structure in the global framework, the wage structures of the firms have also undergone significant modifications to adapt with changing time. Several wage theories and models exist in the economy, which tries to propose different wage structures and also tries to explain their viability in the contemporary global employment scenario. Equitable wage distribution Lavoie Stockhammer, (2013), have put the advantages of an equitable distribution of wages forward. They assert that much of the existing inequalities and poverty related issues in the contemporary world can be attributed to the consistently increasing gaps in the wage structure of the labor force. The differences are mainly occurring due to dissimilarities in the nature of the jobs they are doing, the firms in which they are employed and the economic structure and overall societal and developmental patterns of the countries in which they are working (Leigh Blakely, 2016). According to the authors, the inequalities can be reduced by designing a more equitable wage distribution on part of the firms in the global economy. However, their propositions have been criticized on the ground of efficiency and overall productivity of the firms. Inequalities in wage distribution Mueller, Ouimet Simintzi, (2015) in their works, have tried to focus on the different wage theories, which exist in the contemporary economy. They try to counter the theory of equitable wage distribution. According to the authors, though the theory, discussed prior, apparently seems to be appealing in terms of overall societal welfare, in the real global employment scenario, there exits inequality in the distribution of wages and in many cases, there are logical and rightful reasons for the existence of such inequality in the wages of the workers. As per the arguments put forward by the authors, often there are inequality in the wage structure of the firms, which may be actually beneficial for the firms as well as the objectives of the workers, depending upon the structure of wage differences and the purpose for which they exist (Stewart, 2012). The authors also point out there several trends of inequality, which are very common in the international employment scenario. Wages for the routine jobs, which are more mechanical in nature, are comparatively less than the wages of those jobs in which there are more challenges and requirement for skills. The entry level wages offered by the large and more prospective firms, as argued by the authors, are generally less than the same offered in the start ups. Often this is done because the larger firms in exchange offer better career prospects for the workers and the employees often take the low paid jobs for getting this opportunity and in such cases, the inequalities do not hurt the workers. Pay for performance model One of the major arguments in favor of ethical inequality in wages is the pay for performance model (Frey, Homberg Osterloh, 2013). This wage structure, by providing opportunities to earn more by working more, gives incentives to the workers to increase their productivity, skills and willingness to work more, which in turn increases the overall productivity of the firms in the long run. There are many literatures supporting the pay for performance model as according to these literatures, this actually motivates the workers to excel in their works and the inequality, which is created by this structure, is because of the differences in the individual abilities of the workers and their willingness to trade off leisure for earning more by working more. This model is to a considerable extent similar to the economic concept of the efficiency wage theory, which is discussed, in the following sector, taking reference of the eminent literary works present in the contemporary economic scenari o. Efficiency wage theory As suggested by DiGabriele Ojo, (2017), the efficiency wage mechanism includes the practice of keeping the wage above the equilibrium market level, which in turn results in greater efficiency, even in the presence of surplus labor in the concerned country. The authors suggest that that along with labor union and minimum wage criterion, the presence of efficiency wage model also contributes to the unemployment in the country because all the three advocates for keeping the wages of the workers above the equilibrium level. However, the efficiency wage theory differs from the other two notions in the way that the latter two requires restrictions to be imposed on the firms whereas in the former does not require any restrictions and the firms do this to increase their own profitability. There are several arguments in favor of the efficiency wage theory, which shows the positive implications of higher wages on the improvement of the efficiency of the workers: Turnover of the workers One of the primary costs incurred by the firms, which also negatively contribute to the growth aspects of the firms as well as to the economic well being of the workers is the issue of turnover of the workers from the firms. As put forward by Weiss, (2014), there are direct relations between the turnover of the labor and the wages received by the labors. The turnovers are generally higher in those firms or industries in which there are not sufficient incentives, financial and others, for the workers in their existing jobs. The workers in general always have a cost benefit approach in deciding to stay in a job or leave. If there are sufficient incentives for good performance in any industry, then the turnovers are usually less, as the workers feel more loyal and motivated to do better, which in turn increases their monetary benefits and the long run prospects of the firms (Keeley, 2013). Health of the workers Some theories directly relate the wages received by the labors with their health conditions. Higher wages result in a more healthy diet for the workers, which in turn increases their health and productivity conditions and thus it may be preferable for the firms because a healthy, productive and loyal workforce increases the overall productivity and efficiency of the firms in the long run (Moore Viscusi, 2014). However, the author also points out the limitations of this proposition as diet and health are not that much related with the wage rates in the highly developed countries because the minimum wage levels in these countries usually are inclusive of all these facilities. Shirking of the workers Kwon, (2014), in his works, tries to relate the connectivity of the efforts given by the workers with the wages and incentives received by them. According to the author, in places where the nature of the jobs allows the workers to decide how much effort they want to give, presence of proper performance based incentives are necessary as in the absence of the same, the workers would lose the incentive to work hard. However, with higher wages and performance-based incentives, the workers feel motivated and the problem of shirking is to some extent solved. Motivation theory of effort of the labor Fabris (2013), shows the relation between the effort given by the workers and the wage they receive in a mathematical form. According to the author, the effort of the workers mainly depends on two factors, the relative wage the workers receive in the firm and the overall level of unemployment prevailing in the economy. The relation can be mathematically shown as follows: Ei = f(Wi/We, U), where, Wi is the wage the worker receive in the firm in which he is working, U is the level of unemployment prevailing in the economy Therefore, Wi/We shows the relative wage prevailing in the firm and if it increases then the effort given by the workers also increases, as per the propositions of this theory. From the above-discussed perspectives regarding the positive aspects of the existence of the efficiency wage proposition, it is evident that there are substantial support in favor of the efficiency wage theory and many of these points towards the efficiency and productivity aspects of the firms in the long run. However, there have been substantial debates regarding the applicability of this model, as there are several arguments against the model. Backward bending supply curve of labor The relation between the supply of labor and the wage rates existing is shown with the help of the labor supply curve. In an ideal world, labor is supposed to increase continually with the increase in the wage of the labor. However, as asserted by Wachtel (2013), in real case scenarios, the labor supply curve is not only dependant on the wage rate existing in the economy but also on the tradeoff between labor and leisure of the workers and their individual preferences. The author asserts that if the wages go on increasing continuously, then initially with the increase in the wage the workers will feel motivated to increase their working hours and work more, which may benefit the firms. However, after reaching a point, if the wages still go on rising, then the workers will tend to increase their leisure and for that they may also be ready to sacrifice a few labor hours as they are already earning higher wages. Figure 1: Backward bending supply curve of labor (Source: Mankiw, 2014) As can be seen from the above diagram, after reaching a certain wage level, the substitution effect of the increase in the wage of the labor becomes greater than the income effect of the same and therefore, the labors tend to substitute their labor hours with leisure hours. This theory therefore, challenges the pay for performance and the efficiency wage theories to some extent as according to this theory continuous increase in the wage rate may actually lead to a fall in the level of willingness to work on part of the workers. Empirical evidences In the above sections, two contradicting theories of the efficiency wages and the backward bending supply curve of labor are discussed in details. These two theories, however, need empirical evidences to support their viability and applicability in the real labor scenario in the international framework. The primary questions, which arise in this aspect, are firstly whether a positive link is associated between the unemployment and wage rate and secondly whether efficiency wage increases the labor productivity and the output of the firms. However, when it comes to Australia, McLachlan (2013), suggests that the hypothesis of efficiency wage does not have robust evidences in the country and the relation between unemployment and wage is also not proved as per the evidences that can be seen from the finding of the paper. The author links this weakness with the fluctuations in the business cycle in the industry. There are studies regarding the relationship between wage and motivation in the public sector of different countries. Taylor Taylor (2012), in their analysis took 15 countries in consideration and their studies show that there is lack of motivation in the public sector than in the private sector, even by monetary rewards. The study also shows that where the elasticity of effort with respect to wage is 0.21, the elasticity of motivation with respect to effort in the public sector is 0.61. However, the findings of Kumar, Webber and Perry (2012), finds that with one percent increase in wage is Australian manufacturing sector, the productivity increases from 0.5 percent to 0.8 percent. Conclusion As can be seen from the above discussion, there are several theories, which assert the importance of higher wage or efficiency wage in increasing the efforts and willingness of the workers and thereby increasing the productivity of the firms. From the empirical evidences its seen that there is a significant positive relationship between the higher wage and more productivity in the manufacturing sector of Australia. 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